Policy Overview

The FuelEU Maritime Initiative aims to reduce GHG emissions from maritime transport by increasing the share of renewable and low-carbon fuels in the fuel mix used by ships in navigation, and promoting the use of shore-side electricity to reduce emissions at berth. The European Commission launched a public consultation to gather stakeholders views in March 2020.

Policy At Risk

Following predominantly negative lobbying by the maritime sector, the ambition of the EU Commission’s proposal was severely weakened, adopting technology-neutral requirements on shipping GHG emissions instead of more prescriptive requirements. However, it proposes to cover all voyages within the EU and 50% of inter-EU voyages. The EU Council maintained the core position of the EU Commission, only suggesting technical amendments to the policy.

InfluenceMap Query

Energy Transition & Zero Carbon Technologies and GHG Emission Regulation

Policy Status

Under consideration: first reading in Parliament, proposals adopted by Commission and Council

  • European Parliament: Transport Committee
  • Rapporteur: Jörgen Warborn (European People’s Party)
  • European Council: Transport Council and Working party on Shipping

Evidence Profile

1306126

European Commission

European Council

Lobbying Overview

Overview of Corporate and Industry Lobbying

The aggregated evidence of corporate and industry lobbying on the update of the FuelEU Maritime shows intense, negative engagement from the maritime sector which is concentrated on lowering the initiative’s ambition, with some supportive lobbying from the utilities sector.

Long-term Lobbying Trends

The maritime and oil and gas industries opposed the more ambitious policy option of blending mandates for fuels used by ships in navigation, industry associations such as the European Community Shipowners' Associations (ECSA), the International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and the World Shipping Council (WSC) advocating that a “technology-neutral” and “goal-based” approach would be more suitable, such as GHG intensity targets.

The oil and gas industry pushed for measures to incentivize the uptake of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and drop-in biofuels in the FuelEU Maritime, Shell suggesting that the “widespread uptake of zero carbon fuels in new vessels is at least a decade away.”

Lobbying on the EU Commission’s proposal since July 2021

The maritime sector advocated to weaken the already lowered ambition of the FuelEU Maritime, as the primary GHG emissions reduction measures proposed are GHG intensity targets rather than a fuel blending mandate. In November 2021, ECSA supported the targets, but also recommended, along with ICS, that fuel suppliers should be responsible for compliance instead of ship operators. WSC advocated to adjust the targets based on the availability of renewable and low GHG intensity fuels and, along with Maersk, called for the targets to be applicable only to intra-EU shipping journeys. However, Maersk supported a more ambitious GHG emissions intensity target, and also supported a phase-out date for fossil-fuelled ships from the mid 2030s.

Shipping and utilities sector entities supported on-shore power supply with exceptions. Iberdrola and ECSA advocated for the use of on-shore power supply, but only from 2030 onwards. WSC called for the initiative to provide “flexibility to meet or exceed GHG performance.”

The oil and gas sector continued to promote the uptake of LNG to achieve the GHG emission intensity targets, with FuelsEurope, the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) and Equinor calling for changes to the standard emission values to incentivize its usage.

The utilities sector, and some energy sector entities, were supportive of increased ambition of the FuelEU Maritime. EDF urged the prioritization of electricity, low carbon and/or renewable hydrogen and e-fuels in GHG intensity targets, and Siemens Energy advocated for a 6% 2030 target for e-fuels. Iberdrola supported a more ambitious GHG emissions intensity target for 2035, 2040 and 2050.

Lobbying Impacts on Policy Ambition

By considering the potential scenarios in the EU Commission's original Impact Assessment Report for FuelEU Maritime, and comparing this to the final proposal, a gauge of the impact of industry lobbying can be taken. In this case, intense engagement from the maritime industry appears to correlate to the adoption of weaker positions by the EU Commission and Council.

EU Commission Proposal

  • Emissions reduction mechanism: The maritime sector has been successful in preventing blending mandates, which would prescribed the usage of specific renewable and low-carbon fuels, from being the primary policy option to bring about emissions reductions. The lowest ambition policy option from the impact assessment, technology-neutral GHG intensity targets with additional ‘reward mechanisms’ for overachievers, has been proposed by the EU Commission. This would require fuels used by ships both in navigation and at berth to meet maximum GHG intensity targets, from 2025 onwards. The targets would get increasingly stringent over time, staring from 2% compared to a 2020 baseline, and rising to 75% by 2050.

  • Liquified Natural Gas: The European Commission appears to have accepted that LNG is a necessary transitional fuel to decarbonize shipping, suggesting there is an insufficient supply of zero or low-carbon fuels.

  • Power at berth: The use of on-shore power supply (OPS) would be mandatory for the most polluting ships from 2030 onwards.

  • FuelEU Maritime Scope: All voyages within the EU would be included, in addition to 50% of emissions of ship voyages inbound and outbound from an EU port of call.

Draft EU Parliament Report

The draft EU parliament position, released in February 2022, increased the ambition of the regulation proposed by the EU Commission.

  • FuelEU Maritime Scope: The proposal sought to increase the regulation’s scope to include all energy used by ships travelling between a non-EU state and an EU state, or between two EU ports. It further proposes including all ships with a gross tonnage over 400 (instead of 5,000) in the regulation, vastly increasing the number of ships covered.

  • Clean fuels: The draft proposes replacing the term “low-carbon fuels” with “renewable fuels” in the regulation.

EU Council Position

The EU Councils position retained the core aspects of the EU Commission’s proposal.

  • Scope and targets: The proposal maintained the scope, the targets for reducing GHG intensity of energy used and the requirements for on-shore power supply.

  • Technical amendments: The EU Council proposed some technical amendments which include a temporary multiplier for renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBOs) to stimulate demand and a temporary exemption for small islands, remote areas, outermost regions and ships travelling through ice conditions.

InfluenceMap Query

Energy Transition & Zero Carbon Technologies and GHG Emission Regulation

Policy Status

Under consideration: first reading in Parliament, proposals adopted by Commission and Council

  • European Parliament: Transport Committee
  • Rapporteur: Jörgen Warborn (European People’s Party)
  • European Council: Transport Council and Working party on Shipping

Evidence Profile

1306126

European Commission

European Council

Live Lobbying Alerts

Siemens Energy and Cummins advocate for maritime e-fuel target

17 June 2022

In a joint letter on June 17th, Hydrogen Europe, Siemens Energy and Cummins urged the EU to adopt a 6% 2030 e-fuel target in the FuelEU Maritime, alongside a 5x e-fuel multiplier to promote their use.

Hydrogen Europe promotes hydrogen measures in EU policies

17 June 2022

In an 8th June social media post, Hydrogen Europe CEO Jorgo Chatzimarkakis supported stronger measures for hydrogen in the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure regulation, FuelEU Maritime, and the ReFuelEU Aviation proposals.

Entities Engaged on Policy

The table below lists the entities found to be most engaged with the policy. InfluenceMap tracks over 350 companies and 150 industry associations globally. Each entity name links to its full InfluenceMap profile, where the evidence of its engagement can be found.

Influencemap Performance BandOrganizationEngagement Intensity
C-Shell63EnergyEurope
CBP60EnergyEurope
C-Eni38EnergyEurope
B+EDF60UtilitiesEurope
BIberdrola59UtilitiesEurope
D-BusinessEurope53All SectorsEurope
DFederation of German Industries (BDI)59All SectorsEurope
DInternational Association of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP)34EnergyEurope
DFuelsEurope53EnergyEurope
C-Eurogas40EnergyEurope