Policy Overview

The EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive 2014/94 (AFID) aims to make it easier for consumers to recharge and refuel alternative powered vehicles by providing increased charging and refueling points for electric cars and hydrogen trucks. The European Commission proposed a revision to AFID in September 2020 to align it with the EU’s increased 2030 GHG target, and a public consultation was launched to gather stakeholder views in April 2020. AFID ensures minimum coverage of electric recharging points and hydrogen refueling points.

Policy Making Mixed Progress

After predominantly positive lobbying from the automotive and utilities sectors the EU Commission’s proposal contained ambitious targets for recharging and refueling infrastructure, although intensive lobbying from the energy sector led to the inclusion of measures to increase Liquified Natural Gas infrastructure.

InfluenceMap Query

IPCC aligned transition from carbon-emitting technologies

Policy Status

Under consideration: first reading in Parliament , positions adopted by Commission and Council.

  • EU Parliament: Transport and Tourism Committee
  • Rapporteur: Ismail Ertug (Socialists & Democrats)
  • European Council: Transport Council

Evidence Profile

4191661119

European Commission

European Council

Lobbying Overview

Overview of Corporate and Industry Lobbying

The aggregated evidence of corporate and industry lobbying on the update of the AFID shows engagement has been predominantly supportive of increased ambition, although the automotive industry has advocated for an increased role for fossil gas.

Long-term Lobbying Trends

The automotive sector has predominantly advocated for higher binding member state targets for charging and refueling infrastructure for electric vehicles and hydrogen-powered heavy-duty vehicles. This includes companies such as BMW and Volkswagen, and powerful industry associations such as the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), and the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA).

A faction of the road transportation industry has promoted the expansion of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquified natural gas (LNG) refueling infrastructure for heavy-duty vehicles in AFID, with intense engagement from the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), and the German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA).

The utilities and renewable energy sectors have consistently pushed to expand EU-wide, binding charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, including Eurelectric, WindEurope and SmartEn.

Lobbying on the EU Commission’s proposal since July 2021

The automotive and utilities sectors continue to call for higher EU targets for electric vehicle infrastructure across the EU. This includes major European industry associations such as the VDA, ACEA, Eurelectric and BDI. Automotive parts manufacturers, including Bosch and Cummins, also advocated for increased public recharging infrastructure targets in AFIR to accommodate the large number of electric vehicles coming onto the European market.

The push to include fossil gas infrastructure in AFIR has continued. This mainly originates from European gas industry associations including Eurogas and Gas Infrastructure Europe, both of which advocated for the inclusion of measures to promote LNG and CNG infrastructure. Similarly, FuelsEurope criticized the proposal’s “bias” towards electric charging infrastructure.

Lobbying Impacts on Policy Ambition

By considering the potential scenarios in the EU Commission's original Impact Assessment Report for AFIR reform, and comparing this to the final proposal, a gauge of the impact of industry lobbying can be taken. In this case, supportive engagement from across EU industry meant that several ambitious elements of the EU Commission's proposal were maintained, although the industry push for fossil gas inclusion was incorporated.

EU Commission Proposal

  • Charging and Refueling infrastructure: The AFID proposal ensures minimum coverage of electric recharging points every 60km on highways, and provides hydrogen refueling every 150km. This is in line with middle-ambition recommendations from the EU Commission’s Impact Assessment, which included fleet based national EV infrastructure targets and mandatory targets on Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) road networks from 2025, without legislating more ambitious EV targets for petrol stations from 2025.

  • Directive to Regulation: The EU Commission proposed to adopt a new regulation (replacing the directive) on deploying alternative fuels infrastructure to ensure the policy is implemented at a faster pace with higher ambition.

  • Liquified Natural Gas infrastructure: The proposal further aimed to ensure minimum coverage of publicly accessible heavy-duty vehicle refueling points for liquefied natural gas (LNG) on key TEN-T road networks until 2025, in line with recommendations by the VDA.

Draft EU Parliament Report

The draft EU parliament position, released in February 2022, slightly increased the ambition set by the EU Commission.

  • Hydrogen infrastructure: The proposal increased the nearer-term roll-out of hydrogen refueling and recharging stations by implementing distance-based targets by 2025, instead of waiting until 2030.

  • AFIR Targets: The Parliament draft further proposed higher minimum power output per vehicle targets for fleets and proposed penalties for member states failing to meet such targets.

EU Council Position

The EU Council’s proposal for the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation lowers the EU Commission’s ambition for the policy.

  • AFIR Scope: The Council’s proposal suggests that the rules set out by the EU Commission only apply to the core Trans-European Transport Network, as opposed to both the TEN-T core and comprehensive road networks. It also suggests a maximum distance of up to 200 kilometers between refueling stations along the EU’s major transport network by the end of 2030, in contrast to the Commission’s proposal of 150-kilometer intervals.

  • Targets and Standards: The Council proposed the removal of targets for urban nodes and liquid hydrogen, as well as proposing that minimum capacity requirements for hydrogen refueling points are scrapped. It also requested that the Commission revisit the infrastructure targets by the end of 2024 and requirements to deploy hydrogen refuelling stations.

  • Exceptions for Member States: The proposal would also offer countries further leeway on targets for car charging infrastructure, allowing those with a high uptake of electric vehicles to apply lower requirements to prevent “adverse effects by discouraging private investments.”

InfluenceMap Query

IPCC aligned transition from carbon-emitting technologies

Policy Status

Under consideration: first reading in Parliament , positions adopted by Commission and Council.

  • EU Parliament: Transport and Tourism Committee
  • Rapporteur: Ismail Ertug (Socialists & Democrats)
  • European Council: Transport Council

Evidence Profile

4191661119

European Commission

European Council

Live Lobbying Alerts

Hydrogen Europe promotes hydrogen measures in EU policies

17 June 2022

In an 8th June social media post, Hydrogen Europe CEO Jorgo Chatzimarkakis supported stronger measures for hydrogen in the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure regulation, FuelEU Maritime, and the ReFuelEU Aviation proposals.

Entities Engaged on Policy

The table below lists the entities found to be most engaged with the policy. InfluenceMap tracks over 350 companies and 150 industry associations globally. Each entity name links to its full InfluenceMap profile, where the evidence of its engagement can be found.

Influencemap Performance BandOrganizationEngagement Intensity
D+European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA)40AutomobilesEurope
D-German Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA)51AutomobilesEurope
BEurelectric58UtilitiesEurope
D+European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA)39AutomobilesEurope
C+Hydrogen Europe35EnergyEurope
C-Air Liquide32ChemicalsEurope
B-Schneider Electric52IndustrialsEurope
D+BMW Group41AutomobilesEurope
B+EDF60UtilitiesEurope
DHyundai Motor32AutomobilesAsia